The Grey, Part II of THE BLACK, THE GREY, AND THE WHITE; A BRIEF EXPLORATION OF THE THREE CITIES OF IRAQI KURDISTAN.

I am flying over the Iraqi desert in a half empty medium sized aircraft. The closest passenger is three rows behind me and snoring loudly. My GPS freezes after leaving Turkish airspace, so I play a game of looking out the window to guess where I am. While I am probably somewhere between Dohuk and Erbil, the surface below reminds more of Mars than anything else. An endless series of cracked canyons is embedded between thin mountain chains in the otherwise flat desert. These thin scars stretch between both horizons.

As we begin our descent, I start to notice long white columns of smoke rising from the mountains below. The smoke is organic, the product of burning farmland. It is a refreshingly natural sight. Burning crop waste has been practiced by farmers since prehistoric times in order to fertilize the next crop.

In the distance I see more smoke. This time in the form of a black mushroom could, an indication of a bomb or air strike hitting somewhere in the direction of Mosul.

As we get closer to Erbil, haze from the dozens of oil refineries below trickles into the air, forming an opaque grey ocean between the plane and the airport. “Welcome to Erbil,” says the pilot over the loudspeaker, “the current temperature is 50 degrees (122 Fahrenheit). We hope you’ve enjoyed your flight.” The plane drops into the grey ocean like a star falling into a camp fire. In the muddy air I make out the skyline of this once booming oil city.

Although I bought the plane ticket to Iraq on a whim a couple weeks before, I was always drawn this country. I had been interested in Iraq since I was a child. When I was four years old, Bush launched the US into the first Gulf War. While my playmates were intrigued by plastic superheroes like Superman and the Turtles, I was obsessed with Saddam Hussein. The idea that absolute evil could have absolute power was fascinating because I felt that absolute good is by its nature, was unable to have absolute power.

The week the US began its invasion of annexed Kuwait, I bought a miniature army set and constantly re-enacted Saddam Hussein’s world, obsessing over the details of military purges and the placement of troops during his invasion and inevitable retreat.

Now I was here in Iraq: a land which has not only been miniaturized through my toys, but also miniaturized through the lens of newspapers, and through distance, politics, language and cultural barriers. Finally, this land was beginning to expand from outside my airplane window.

The Black, the Grey, and the White; A brief exploration of the three cities of Iraqi Kurdistan.

This is going to be a different kind of travel essay. First of all, it will be written in three parts, out of order. For example, I visited Erbil first, but I will speak about it now, in this second part.

Second, I will only write about what I saw and heard. If I were to begin writing about the history of these cities, I might as well begin writing an encyclopedia. Erbil alone, is considered by some archaeologists to be the first city in the history of the world. It’s hard to fathom how much culture and yore these cities have accumulated.

Third, again, unlike good journalism, I am not going to write the truth. I’m only going to write what I was told, read, and saw. Perhaps I’m spending too much time in the Middle East, or perhaps it’s my upbringing in a cult, but I believe in order to understand people and cultures, I have to understand their truths separately from the facts. If everyone acts on a truth that diverges from reality, how valuable is that truth compared to reality? When studying history, the facts mean everything. When observing culture, facts are things that usually get in the way.

 

Part Two

The Grey: Erbil

 

There is a grey chemical haze that envelops Erbil like a fog cap on a mountain. The haze comes from three main sources; oil refineries, car exhaust, and generators. The oil refineries around Erbil have transformed the parched land into a sunny Mordor. It is hard to imagine so much smoke being pumped into the air by anything other than a chain of active volcanoes. Yet, as disturbing as these refineries are, they are the lifeblood of this nation.

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Erbil is one of the oldest, if not the oldest city, in the world. Although in its current incarnation, the city has become a tiny Los Angeles. Its streets are as wide as freeways. Its layout requires cars, yet there is no public transportation. The seemingly unregulated exhaust from the endless stream of traffic puts a layer of dusty particles on everything, including my skin, which made me feel like I was living in a drizzle of soot.

While the refineries and cars do some unfortunate things to Erbil’s atmosphere, I believe it’s the generators that do the real damage. The power goes out in Erbil once or twice an hour which prompts thousands of diesel generators to simultaneously turn on, making the inside of houses and hotel rooms smell like the inside of train engine, and the outside a train yard. This said, I suppose one gets used to the air, and it’s the worst in the Summer.

Although most Iraqi-Kurdistan was astonishingly in tune with its surroundings, Erbil had an unnatural “green-zone” feel to it. Still, it was not set up for travelers. For example, there were streets lined with dozens of hotels but only one ATM in the city. And it was broken. There were rumours of a second ATM, but it was not found. There were places with names, “Italian village” , “English village” , and “Dream City,” but these were all just heavily guarded gated communities, as out of place with the rest of the city as colonies on the Moon. On top of that, much of Erbil consisted of half built cement mega structures, destined to become mountains of crumbling cement. The global oil crash has not been kind to this city.

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This mall went on forever but only had a few businesses inside.

The center of the city was an exception to the ugliness. As it was the original city, it retained beauty and soul. The elaborately ornate bizarre was massive, loud, and vibrant. The citadel, raised above the rest of the city on a masa, looked too ancient to be real. The plaza below was an aesthetic refuge for the city’s population.

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Erbil’s citizens were also an exception to its ugliness. Everyone I met was kind and thoughtful. The biggest shock came when I had to cross the giant streets. These Niles of asphalt were daunting at first. There were no crosswalks in Erbil, and if there was something that resembled a crosswalk, it was not working because of the chronic lack of electricity. Instead, pedestrians crossed the street by walking from spaces between the lanes.

In my home city of Izmir this would truly be a death sentence. However in Erbil, drivers would press the brake pedal just enough for me to run in front of their car onto the next space between lanes, until I made it all the way across the street. It was a great system. By the end of my trip I was addicted to crossing the street, thrilled at the recognition of my humanity.

Another example of Kurdish thoughtfulness came when I would attempt to buy something. I knew about five words in Kurdish. The Arabic I could speak was a different dialect, and while some people understood a little English, the typical shop owner did not.

In some cultures, not knowing the language and wanting to buy something as simple as a bottle of water, results in a clusterfuck involving a congregation of multiple shop owners, customers, and cellphone calls to the cousin that took an English class in 1982. But in Erbil, I was able to calmly explain things through hand gestures and broken Arabic, until the shop owner understood.

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Taken in a strange neighborhood of broken buildings which had people still living inside.

Even though Erbil did not seem like a functional or even livable city, I look back on it with affection because of the simple appreciations of my humanity – something that is rare for any city. I left Erbil after spending a little over 24 hours there. Perhaps more time would have reveled a better side, but I doubt it.

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The Grey, Part II of THE BLACK, THE GREY, AND THE WHITE; A BRIEF EXPLORATION OF THE THREE CITIES OF IRAQI KURDISTAN.

The Black, the Grey, and the White; A brief exploration of the three cities of Iraqi Kurdistan.

I am in a shared taxi, crossing over the Great Zab River. The wide, slow river looks like a biblical scene, which it must be. Tall swaying reeds have grown far from their banks, exploring the swifter currents of the river. I can see families bathing below the bridge. Their skin is as dark as charcoal and contrasts against the light coloured water. I check my map. Iraq’s second city Mosul, is just ahead, only twenty miles away.

Mosul is one of the most fascinating places in the world, with a history that goes deeper than the bedrock of most civilizations. Now it is impossible to reach. In its current incarnation, it has been taken over by a mostly foreign conglomerate of death worshipers. This, obviously, makes travel to it impossible. Although my taxi continues forward.

I fleeting ponder my safety, but the moment passes as I am comforted by rationality. This morning, as every morning, I have consulted my maps. It’s been months since this territory I’m in has been “liberated.” If nothing else, I am protected by the mines buried in the surrounding grassland, which have accumulated from various wars Iraq has been unable to shake.

Tiny Arab children stand in the middle of the highway, forming islands with their bodies, offering bottles of water from ice chests. The taxis and oil tankers casually swerve around them, or sometimes stop in the middle of the two-lane highway to buy a bottle. This perhaps, is something far more dangerous than my proximity to a city run by serial killers.

The taxi driver points ahead and makes a drinking motion at me. I think he’s telling me that the driver of the SUV front of us is drunk, but it turns out that we are stopping for water and cigarettes at a rest stop. At the stop, men pray in the shade while others wander aimlessly, stretching their legs. While I have the urge to wander too, I stay close. Being in a taxi, flying through the landscape at 120 kilometers per hour is one thing, being stuck at a rest stop with no security forces has a different feel to it.

Soon enough the driver decides to go. We enter a new road which is so new, it has not been paved yet nor is it on Google Maps. The grassy hills roll on endlessly in front of us, reminding me of central California. Conjuring up some Arabic, I say to passenger beside me, “This is like California.” He looks around the hills, mulling my words. “Yes!” He exclaims. “ISIS is in California too!” The cab erupts in laughter. Selfies are taken. Soon afterwards we drop the passenger off at a checkpoint. It turns out he was on his way to fight the group we were joking about.

The Black, the Grey, and the White; A brief exploration of the three cities of Iraqi Kurdistan.

This is going to be a different kind of travel essay. First of all, it will be written in three parts, out of order. For example, I visited Erbil first, but I will speak about it in the second part.

Second, I will only write about what I saw and heard. If I were to begin writing about the history of these cities, I might as well begin writing an encyclopedia. Erbil is considered by some archaeologists to be the first city in the history of the world. It’s hard to fathom how much culture and yore these cities have accumulated.

Third, unlike good journalism, I am not going to write the truth. I’m only going to write what I was told, read, and saw. Perhaps I’m spending too much time in the Middle East, or perhaps it was my upbringing in a cult, but I believe in order to understand people and cultures, I have to understand their truths separately from the facts. If everyone acts on a truth that diverges from reality, how valuable is that truth compared to reality? When studying history, the facts mean everything. When observing culture, facts are things that usually get in the way.

Part One

The Black: Sulaymaniyah

By the time my taxi dropped me off on the outskirts of Sulaymaniyah, I had become friends with one of the passengers. He, like me, didn’t like to take busses or taxis. When he suggested we walk to the city center I was relieved. Despite the heat and mid-day sun (according to the taxi’s thermostat, 45C / 115F) I was happy to walk the 4.5 miles with him through the entire city. A taxi or bus would have put that journey on fast-forward, cheapening it, even commercializing it. Journeys should be appreciated for what they are, not for where you are.

In a taxi, I wouldn’t have had the time to discuss what life in Kurdistan was like or about the good aspects of the George W. Bush presidency and the 2003 invasion of Iraq. For example, the salvation of the Iraqi minorities from Saddam Hussein’s systematic genocides. Neither would I have fully appreciated the mountain winds that cooled me as baked in the sun. Perhaps these winds were one of the reasons for this city’s location. I also wouldn’t have had the details of Sulaymaniyan life given to me through geography.

We passed by a cafe with a colourfully painted tree. My friend told me that this is where Kurdish youth like to congregate at night. When we passed a strange-looking mosque, he told me it looked that way because it was Shi’a. Later he told about his Jewish friends who still live in the city and practice in secret. According to all academic sources, there are no Jews living in traditional homeland of Iraq, so this was a refreshing revelation.

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When we got the the city center, my friend bought me a chicken sandwich at his favourite Kurdish fast food place, and we parted ways. Now very close to my hotel, and in need of everything that water had to offer, I made it my hostel named the “Dalphin Hotel.”

The hotel was decorated like… like… I don’t even know how to put it. Wood paneling, blue carpet. Yellow everywhere else. There was an large portrait of the owner feeding a dolphin in the lobby. Some of the walls were sliding glass doors that were completely covered with the kind of design that usually says, “BLOWOUT SALE!!!!” but instead said, “DALPHIN HOTEL.” There were no windows to the outside.

Once inside one layer of sliding glass, I had to go through another layer in order to reach the hall where my room was. In the second layer, I was greeted by a two foot tall Eiffel Tower, which was surrounded by a bedroom-sized shrine of fake garden plants. Top and center from this shrine was an ominous black camera attached to the wall. There was a hall, but mostly the hostel’s layout consisted of a random cluster of rooms. Never the less, it was a great place to stay. Quant in its insanity.

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Bazaar close to the Dalphin Hotel.

The hostel owner was incredibly nice and gave me an unexpected itinerary and a free map. He told me a little of the recent dark history of Sulaymaniyah, going into detail about one of Saddam Hussein’s “prisons” in the middle of the city, which sounded more like a concentration camp. The “prison” was recently flattened and turned into an enormous park. Until the Sulaymaniyah’s citizens built the park, they could smell the thousands of dead buried in the mass graves inside the prison walls.

I took a wrong turn on the way to the park entrance, so I used a small path to get inside, which led into a field of randomly placed statues of artists, philosophers, and prison victims. There were also scattered graves of politicized figures.

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It was completely quiet sans faint music from a birthday party going on somewhere. After finding a main path leading out of the field, I discovered that this park was enormous. I spent the next two hours exploring it’s mostly empty fields, groves, and unkempt pathways. Sometimes I came across couples nesting in the bushes. Once I stumbled onto a wedding photo session. By the time I found my way out of an overgrown hedge-maze, it was getting dark, and my feet were giving out. On my way home, I passed by groups of joggers, something I haven’t seen since moving from San Francisco.

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I woke early the next day to go to a museum. I wasn’t sure about what kind of museum it was, but the hostel owner told me it was free. The museum was not where the map said it should be. After the third time of dragging my feet along the road where the little museum symbol was printed, I gave up the search and took a random road back to my hostel.

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Seeing Jesus on my way back.

Along this road I found an old barracks guarded by Kurdish soldiers. I had an overwhelming attraction to the place. I wanted to get in somehow, but of course, I couldn’t walk into a military base in Iraq just because I wanted to. I don’t what possessed me, but I hung out by the guard for a little while, who glared at me. I said, “hello” in Kurdish, like a stupid tourist, which increased his menacing glare rather than quelching it. But for whatever reason I wouldn’t leave.

After a minute, a group of well dressed men walked by me and the guard, and straight into a door I was standing next to. I followed the men and inside, and found myself in a museum – the exact museum I had been looking for. Not questioning the moment, I followed the group of men through the lobby and into the old barracks. From there I walked into the first door that called out to me, which opened up to this:

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I don’t know what it was supposed to represent, but I felt as if it were a memorial to all the Kurds killed by the Iraqi government. Each light was a mind extinguished by Saddam Hussein. The crooked walls and corners made of shattered mirror felt seeped in superstition and recognition of broken reality. The end of the hall opened up to a traditional Kurdish house, then continued briefly, into a dead end.

After spending a long time in the hall, I re-entered the daylight into a dirt lot filled military equipment. Tanks, anti-aircraft guns, cannons, and spent shells littered the lot. The buildings around me were covered in bullet holes, evidence of a rebellion. Possibly from the early nineties, but perhaps as recent as 2003.

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I walked through the lot and entered another building. The building had four doors. One was labelled, “Cinema.” The others were a mystery. I opened the first door and stepped into a long room a portraits. These portraits illustrated various aspects of Kurdish life. The second door opened up into a much larger room, filled with portraits and names. The room made it clear that these were the victims of a deliberate genocide committed by Saddam Hussein and his cousin, “Chemical Ali.” One of the plaques suggested that none of the people named in the room, have been recovered. I didn’t leave the room for a long time, letting its design give me the information that I couldn’t get from the plaques mostly written in Kurdish.

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Upstairs, a third door opened to a room of discarded weapons and deactivated mines. On one wall, there was a poster naming the countries that produced the mines that have been found throughout Iraqi Kurdistan. On the other wall, there was a poster that named the countries who were helping de-mine Iraqi Kurdistan. In case you’re wondering, the US was on both posters.

I felt as if these two posters were the reason I was brought here. Here, alone in this room, I could reflect on the duality of unconscious destruction and conscious preservation. This room made it easy to see that lives can be extinguished by greed, or saved, or even sacrificed by compassion. Sometimes it’s the same entity that is responsible for everything.

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American made mine.

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“Mines which are found in Kurdistan are made by these countries.” Note the lack of Iraqi flag.
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“Participating countries in Demining of Kurdistan.” 100% are Western countries.
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Memorial to those killed by the mines they were trying to clear. It includes two dogs.

I was done by this point, exhausted, and I still had a two hundred miles to travel by taxis that day. I left the building and started heading out of the complex.

Out of nowhere a man called to me from behind. This was the first man I had seen since I followed the group into the museum. “PRISON!” He called out, pointed at an ominous non-descript building behind me. “PRISON!!” I thanked the man and walked into the door. The man disappeared somewhere, and I was alone in Saddam’s old prison.

Thankfully, I’ve never been to an American prison before, but I guarantee that this was not built like an American prison. There were no halls. Just a lot of rooms mashed together. Most of these rooms were cells. Some of the the rooms were for different kinds of torture, and some were toilets. There was no kitchen, no medical center, nor anything else nothing like that. It took a long time to go through the whole prison because of its size and lack of light.

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According to a plaque, this method of torture was common and often fatal. During the liberation of the prison, someone was able to save the desk and torture device so they could show the world what had happened at this prison.

After the prison tour, I was truly exhausted and left the complex. As the strong mountain wind did its best to cool me off, I took in the beauty of this city. Book stores, fruit sellers, and artwork could be found everywhere. Sulaymaniyah is known as a center for education and art. I walked through the bazaar, fully aware of the many cultures that surrounded me. There were lots of smiles from jovial people hanging around every stall and store. At one point a man in chains struggled past me. I vaguely recalled reading about a certain sect of people in this region who practice self-flagellation.

Over all, Sulaymaniyah was a colourful city, bursting with creativity. Here, the citizens chose to make a park from concentration camp. However, my brief visit Sulaymaniyah focused on the black recent history buried an inch below the surface. I wish I could have stayed another day to focus on its beauty.

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One of the many murals of Sulaymaniyah.
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Library.
The Black, the Grey, and the White; A brief exploration of the three cities of Iraqi Kurdistan.